Top 10 Mobile Commerce Strategies


C1. Daily Deal Transactions

groupon logo

One effective sales strategy for some product/service categories is reaching clients through Daily Deal sites such as Groupon,[ii] LivingSocial,[iii] Offeron,[iv] MyDealBag,[v] and WagJag.[vi] These organizations have large mailing lists of consumers who signed up to get daily deals at a significant discount.

Many daily deal sites now offer a mobile app option to help you reach prospective clients while they are on the road (e.g., Groupon Now!).[vii] This strategy only works if you are offering a significant discount and you have the type of product or service that may result in a significant portion of buyers becoming repeat customers. The key to a successful daily deal campaign is structuring it so that the benefits of the deal (i.e., generating repeat business) outweigh the costs of the deal (i.e., a potential loss on the initial deal).

Common deal offers are for personal services (e.g., hair salons, manicures/pedicures, massages, facials, teeth whitening), fitness (e.g., health clubs, gym memberships and yoga), food and wine (e.g., restaurants, grocery items, grocery delivery services and make-your-own wine), auto services (e.g., car detailing, oil changes and tune‑ups) and entertainment (e.g., movies, theatre, mini‑putt and bowling).

For example, the T‑Zone ran a 30‑day health club membership and infrared sauna deal through WagJag. The regular price was $57 but the daily deal price was only $19, a 76 percent discount. About half of the money earned goes to T‑Zone and the other half goes to WagJag. As you can see, the promotion is not very profitable, but T‑Zone’s goal is to convert these trial customers into regular customers.

According to T‑Zone’s owner, 250 daily deal packages were bought and it is likely that only about 200 of those will be redeemed. T‑Zone and WagJag still make the full amount from the 50 packages that were purchased but never redeemed before the daily deal expiry date. Of those 200 visitors, the T‑Zone owner estimates they can convince about 50 customers to buy additional services at the regular price and convert about 20 into regular monthly customers.

These results are quite positive, given that the promotion did not cost them anything; they simply had to service the customers as they came in. This daily deal strategy was especially effective in the early stages of their business, as they were able to quickly ramp up the utilization of the real estate, equipment and personnel that they had already invested in.

There are however, risks to this strategy. If your daily deal price is far too low and you are unable to convert the required number of trial customers to regular customers, then the promotion ends up costing you more than the monies earned. This is especially true if you have to hire more staff to service the trial customers, keep a higher quantity of product on‑hand or if the cost of your product is more than the daily deal price. Losing money on every sale is never a good strategy.

Another risk is setting a new baseline price point for your product or service. For example, if customers see that these deal sites are offering a similar deal on a fairly regular basis, they will simply wait until the next daily deal comes along again before they buy. For example, 30 bottles of make-your-own wine normally cost $159, but the daily deal price is $59. Some customers will therefore simply order enough wine until the next $59 deal comes along again and never pay the actual retail price of $159 again.

To counter this disadvantage, some companies exclude existing customers from the deal, or limit the number of coupon deals one individual can order. Nonetheless, many consumers can be patient, especially if there is $100 worth of savings attached to the deal. And if they watch closely, another competitor may be offering the same deal sooner rather than later.

To create a successful daily deal campaign, you need to ensure that the promotional price you set, minus the fees for the daily deal site, is profitable. If it’s not, you need to accurately estimate how many trial users will continue buying your product at your regular price following the end of the promotion.

Oops!

Daily Deal Marketing Missteps – Need a Cake Bakery: Need a Cake bakery in London made some critical mistakes with their Groupon promotion. Management underestimated the number of people that would purchase the deal and overestimated the number of trial customers that would continue to pay the full price for their cupcakes. As a result, 8,500 people purchased 102,000 cupcakes at a heavily discounted price and Need a Cake lost $20,000.[viii]

Challenge Question

Daily Deal Transaction Strategies: Does a daily deal marketing strategy make sense for your organization, and if so, how would you apply it?

C2. Gift Card Transactions

There are several categories of products that simply do not lend themselves to online sales, especially not on a smartphone.[1] This includes products and services that:

  • Need to be seen or touched before a purchase is made
  • Require an infrastructure change before they can be used
  • Need to be test‑driven or tried on before a purchase is made
  • Have ingrained purchasing processes that would be difficult to change, and
  • Are complex and therefore someone needs to be available to answer customers’ questions.

For offerings that have these characteristics, it may make more sense to focus on gift card sales rather than sales of the actual product. For example, buying clothes as a gift for someone else is rather risky, but as long as one knows which store the person tends to shop in, a gift card may be the best solution. Mobile solutions can address this need by enabling virtual gift cards.

DISNEY APPTACO BELL APP

Figure 51: Disney and Taco Bell Gift Card Sample Apps

Challenge Question

Gift Card Transaction Strategies: Does it make sense for your organization to sell gift cards, and if so, how would you use mobile marketing strategies to implement it?

C3. Mobile Website Transactions

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C4. Mobile App Transactions

A typical approach for conducting m-commerce transactions is with traditional virtual shopping cart and authentication software enabled on a mobile website or within a mobile app. For example, fast food chain Subway provides mobile ordering on its Subway Now app. Consumers place sandwich orders while on the go – no waiting in line. Automated messages are sent to customers indicating when their order will be ready.[x]

By enabling mobile apps and a mobile browser ordering capability, Pizza Hut executives in the UK have projected that their mobile orders could surpass 50 percent of sales.[xi]

An interesting aspect of m-commerce transactions in some industries is that they are typically for more immediate requirements vs. longer term requirements. For example, travel company Orbitz asserts that almost two‑thirds of mobile bookings are for same‑day reservations – much higher than reservations on desktops and laptops.[xii]

To enable m-commerce payments, there are a number of mobile wallet payment processing systems that could be considered from companies such as Apple,[xiii] Google,[xiv] PayPal,[xv] LevelUp,[xvi] Dwolla,[xvii] Isis[xviii] and others. For example, Apple’s Passbook provides an infrastructure for processing mobile payments.[xix]

STARBUCK QRWatch the Video: Mobile Commerce Transactions – Starbucks: Starbucks commerce apps are convenient for customers and drive revenues for Starbucks.[xx] <goo.gl/MF9o2> (Duration: one minute)
DOMINOS APP QRWatch the Video: Mobile Commerce Transactions – Domino’s: Domino’s Pizza ordering app has generated pizza sales of over £10 million in the UK.[xxi] <goo.gl/8UgO5> (Duration: 20 seconds)

Challenge Question

Mobile Website/App Commerce Strategies: Does it make sense for your organization to conduct commerce transactions on a mobile website and/or mobile app, and if so, how would you implement it?

C5. Prepaid Transactions

One m‑commerce innovation involves prepaid purchases on prepaid accounts. When referring to prepaid accounts, most people think of prepaid mobile phone accounts, whereby you purchase a certain amount of talk time and then use up your minutes as required. In many countries around the world (e.g., Mexico, Uruguay), prepaid accounts make up a substantial proportion of all transactions and can work with both smartphones and feature phones.

The early days of prepaid accounts required a purchase of a prepaid card in a store and scratching the card would reveal a special code to enable the service. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technologies have also been used to enable prepaid account transactions. More recently however, a much higher proportion of these transactions are simply handled on a smartphone app. A credit card is often used to put money into the prepaid account and then purchases for goods and services can be made. If more funds are required, the account is simply replenished (also known as topping up, recharging or recarga in Spanish).

The creation of prepaid accounts on a smartphone wallet app opens the door to generating all kinds of transactions. Other payment methods for prepaid account purchases could include debit cards, payments from a mobile phone account with a telecommunications provider or a transfer of funds directly from a bank account.

Challenge Question

Prepaid Transaction Strategies: Does a prepaid transaction strategy make sense for your organization, and if so, how would you apply it?

C6. Outbound Transactions

The problem with mobile website or mobile app commerce strategies is that they are an inbound approach, waiting for clients to show up or download and open up the app. Research suggests that more than one‑quarter of apps actually get used only once for a few minutes and then never used again.[xxii]

On the other hand, an outbound approach is one where your organization obtains permission to proactively reach out to your customers. The control over the communications is now in the hands of your organization and as long as you continue to provide value to customers, they may continue to keep that door open.

There is a wide range of powerful outbound commerce approaches that organizations can use to reach out to customers. Let’s explore the options using a commerce model called the M‑Commerce Prismsm (Mobile Commerce Prism).

The M‑Commerce Prism ( Click on the image to view )

M COMMERCE PRISM

Figure 52: The M‑Commerce Prism

The M‑Commerce Prism can be used to explore a wide range of powerful commerce transaction approaches – there are many different forms of m‑commerce. Organizations should consider pursuing commerce methods that are as high as possible on the M‑Commerce Prism scale.

When the average person thinks of e‑commerce, they picture a typical web‑based commerce transaction. A visitor goes to a website, scans through web pages or an online catalogue with product photos and information, places items in their shopping cart and then finalizes the transaction with a credit card. Currently a large percentage of commerce transactions are executed using this formula.

In the future however, m‑commerce transactions will take place using a variety of tactics and technologies. The M‑Commerce Prism helps us to analyze and assess many different kinds of powerful commerce transaction methods.

B‑Commerce (Brick and Mortar Commerce)

B‑Commerce refers to a strategy whereby the focus of your efforts is not on conducting online transactions, but in simply attempting to drive foot traffic to your real‑world stores or dealerships or facilities. This could be achieved by providing a store locator function or online coupons that the visitor could bring into one of your locations. These transactions could be facilitated by instant real‑time notifications that go out to consumers in the vicinity of the store.

AVR‑Commerce (Automated Voice Response Commerce)

AVR‑Commerce refers to commerce transactions that are conducted via Automated Voice Response technologies. For example, I can get a shipment of bottled water by simply calling my supplier’s AVR system and indicating how many bottles of water I want on the next delivery; no human intervention is needed. Or, the AVR system can proactively contact me and ask me what quantity I would like delivered.

A simple audio response could then generate the purchase order and integrate with both the billing and logistics systems. One key advantage of AVR‑commerce is the fact that no human intervention is required. Also, it does not require a smartphone; it can work on a feature phone, thereby reaching a broader audience.

W‑Commerce (Web Commerce)

W‑Commerce refers to traditional web commerce or mobile web commerce that occurs on your corporate website, accessible from a laptop, tablet or smartphone.

App‑Commerce (Mobile App Commerce)

App‑Commerce refers to transactions completed inside a mobile app. The app can be built to proactively reach out to customers with offers.

R‑Commerce (Repeat Commerce)

R‑Commerce refers to conducting repeat commerce transactions (on the web or within a mobile app) with existing customers that have already placed an order in the past. A focus on tactics to improve your r‑commerce effectiveness is important for a number of reasons. Since customer acquisition costs may be greater than the profits of your first transaction, generating repeat purchases is often critical to long‑term profitability.

As well, once customers make an initial purchase with a company, they are more likely to continue purchasing from that company as long as they are satisfied. R‑commerce transactions are much simpler than other commerce transactions because the customer has set up an account and a payment method which greatly simplifies future transactions.

In some quarters, Amazon.com has reported that repeat purchases accounted for up to 70 percent of their total sales.[xxiii] A key reason for this success is Amazon’s 1‑click ordering system that enables existing customers to place an order with a single click of the mouse. Features like this should increase customer retention since customers are less likely to go through the process of setting up an account elsewhere, as long as they continue to be content with Amazon.

P‑Commerce (Proactive Commerce)

P‑Commerce refers to commerce tactics that you can take to proactively sell your offerings on websites, mobile sites and mobile apps other than your own. You can proactively sell your products:

  •       On e‑marketplaces
  •       On B2B and B2C auction websites (e.g., eBay.com)
  •       On your channel partners’ websites
  •       To companies posting their purchasing requirements or tender notices online
  •       To government agencies and public institutions posting public tenders online.
O‑Commerce (Outbound Commerce)

O‑Commerce refers to opt‑in e‑mail, SMS text and/or Twitter tactics that can proactively reach out to potential customers to trigger a commerce transaction.

Outbound Commerce Tactical Tips
  •       Send e‑mails, SMS text messages or tweets to prospects and customers that have subscribed to your opt‑in lists.
  •       Send e‑mails or SMS text messages to prospects that have subscribed to opt‑in lists of database or marketing companies.
  •       Participate on social media sites (and cloud-based CRM/social marketing environments such as Salesforce.com)[xxiv] and gain marketing visibility through your participation, contribution and reputation.

E‑mails, text messages and tweets can contain links to a website where the actual commerce transaction is completed. O‑commerce can work on both smartphones and feature phones, although it tends to be more effective on smartphones.

With multiple Twitter handles, Dell Outlet has sold more than $3 million in goods via its Twitter posts. This has been achieved with offers that are exclusive to Twitter, giving out coupons which get re‑tweeted and picked up by coupon sites. Dell then uses analytics to track results to gauge what followers find most appealing.[xxv]

The City of New York introduced a mobile parking payment system that allows residents to pay for a spot by simply sending a text message.[xxvi] This enables car owners to extend their use of a parking spot remotely, without the need to return to their vehicle.

PAY BY PHONE QRWatch the Video: Outbound Commerce Transactions – Paybyphone: See how paybyphone parking can proactively notify the customer when more money is needed in the parking meter.[xxvii] <goo.gl/SWM7z> (Duration: two minutes)
Q‑Commerce (Quick Commerce)

Q‑Commerce refers to the ability to actually conduct a commerce transaction within an e‑mail or text message. Imagine receiving a text message that presents you with an offer to purchase a particular product. Furthermore, to complete the purchase transaction, all you have to do is click on a single button on your smartphone that automatically commits you to the purchase. At that point, you would then receive an order confirmation via text, e‑mail or a link to a web page which would simply confirm the transaction details.

For example, consider the airline industry that has the problem of lost revenues from unsold business class seats. Why not sell those seats to passengers that are already on the flight? Finnair does exactly that. Just before takeoff, Finnair offers the empty business class seats for a small upgrade fee using either money or points. First they are offered to platinum frequent flyers, then gold, then, if any are left, to the remaining passengers.

Furthermore, this is all done via mobile while passengers are working their way through airport security to the departure gate. This is a powerful approach for increasing the profitability of every flight, by simply moving passengers from the back of the plane to the front of the plane. This would be a great application to automate through a q‑commerce approach.

A‑Commerce (Automatic Commerce)

A‑Commerce refers to a commitment for an ongoing series of product or service purchases; the pre‑approved transactions then happen automatically. Once automatic reordering is in place, the user does not have to do anything to confirm each repeat/replenishment order.

The frequency of the reorders can be based on a number of factors:

  • Time‑based reorders (e.g., a standard order that is repeated monthly or quarterly for goods or services such as vitamins, wine or dating websites)
  • Replenishment reorders (e.g., automatically top up your prepaid account when it reaches a certain level)
  • Needs-based reorders (e.g., repeat orders for goods such as drinking water, diapers or nylons that will vary in size depending on usage), and
  • Event-based reorders (e.g., on birth dates, anniversary dates, Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day, mortgage renewal time, car insurance renewal time, etc.).

For the future, imagine a garbage can or a recycling bin with a built‑in barcode scanner that would know exactly which items you have consumed. A wireless replenishment order could then be automatically transmitted to the grocery store.

M‑Commerce Prism Strategies

The goal of an effective m‑commerce strategy should be to convert as many transactions as possible to the ones at the top of the Prism. These top‑end methods have several competitive advantages including the fact that they are the most frictionless transactions possible. They provide soft lock‑in and barriers to entry; once customers become familiar and comfortable with purchasing this way (your apps and delivery channel) they are much less likely to defect to competitors.

These top‑end m‑commerce methods are also less costly since there is less human intervention and more automation. Enabling some of these m-commerce strategies should help to create a soft lock-in for keeping customers, increase your sales and improve your profitability.

Challenge Questions

Outbound Transaction Strategies: Which outbound transaction strategies have you already implemented? Does it make sense to implement several outbound transaction strategies, and if so, which ones are a priority? How would you communicate and promote them? What approaches can you take to drive more transactions to the top-end m-commerce methods described above?

C7. E‑Mail Money Transfer Transactions

More and more people are learning how to send money via e‑mail, a service that is now offered by most banks and others. Furthermore, most consumers can now access this capability either on their laptop or via the Internet banking app on their tablet or phone.

Imagine paying everything from home renovations to landscaping services to snow plowing services via a simple e‑mail money transfer. No interaction would be needed with the service workers since all the payment processes would be handled electronically (e.g., transaction, payment receipt, etc.). Furthermore, the company would benefit by eliminating credit card processing fees. There may be many types of businesses where this payment method could be a good fit.

Challenge Question

E-Mail Transaction Strategies: Does an e-mail transaction strategy make sense for your organization, and if so, how would you apply it?

C8. SMS Text Transactions

One payment transaction innovation is the ability to make purchases via a simple SMS text message. Let’s explore how companies have utilized this effortless method.

SUBWAY ORDER

Figure 53: Subway Restaurants has Enabled Food Ordering via SMS

Subway Restaurants has enabled mobile orders via SMS text messages. Customers send a text message with a specific code to order a particular submarine sandwich.

A few years ago, Subway Restaurants launched a mobile ordering system that required two simple steps. First the customer set up an account indicating their preferred payment method, and after that all purchase transactions were handled via SMS text with specific codes for certain sandwiches. An order confirmation was then sent back to the customer with pickup time. Once the customer arrived at the store, he/she could simply skip the sandwich line as well as the payment line. This is very convenient for both customers and staff.[xxviii]

COCA COLA

Figure 54: SMS‑Enabled Vending Machines – Coca Cola

Coca‑Cola has launched SMS‑enabled vending machines enabling consumers to pay for beverages using their mobile devices. The fee is added to the customer’s telephone bill and no app is needed, resulting in increased purchasing frequency.[xxx]

There are a number of benefits to SMS text commerce transactions including the security of the transactions (credit card numbers do not need to be transmitted), no mobile app download is needed and a customer can complete transactions even if they have left their wallet at home.

For organizations that do not want to go through the process of building an SMS text commerce transaction system, there are other SMS options for achieving sales objectives. For example, I recently attended a Toronto Raptors basketball game, and when I arrived at my seat, there was a notice indicating that I could send a text message to order beer. Shortly after sending a text message, the beer was delivered to my seat and I paid by cash.

Although this SMS text ordering process did not actually handle the payment, it still provided a convenient way to place an order, and saved me the trouble of having to leave my seat. I suspect that the availability of this ordering method likely increases sales, since a portion of people may not want to stand in a lineup and miss part of the game.

Challenge Question

SMS Text Transaction Strategies: Does an SMS text transaction strategy make sense for your organization, and if so, how would you apply it?

C9. Established Payment Process Transactions

Another approach for generating m-commerce transactions would be to utilize established payment processing systems such as PayPal. Mobile sites such as m.Drugstore.com, m.Beauty.com and m.GNC.com have all added PayPal Mobile Express Checkout to their mobile sites to speed up the mobile purchasing process and improve conversion rates.[xxxi]

The goal of any sales purchase process should be to achieve frictionless transactions. Using established commerce mechanisms is a great approach for reducing m‑commerce friction since many people already have a PayPal account. This improves transaction simplicity for all current and future PayPal customers. PayPal also recently formed a partnership with Discover that will enable PayPal mobile payments in over seven million establishments in the U.S. in 2013.

QR codes can be used to speed up PayPal transactions even further. A QR code could be created to automatically connect your customer to PayPal’s Buy Now transaction facility. Once created, you could place the QR code on a point of purchase display indicating that you now accept PayPal purchases. The customer would simply scan the QR code with their smartphone and immediately be directed to the Buy Now link where they would complete the transaction.

If your target market is China or Asia, this means enabling payments through Alipay which already has credit card information on over 700 million registered users.[xxxii]

PAYPAL QRWatch the Video: Commerce Transactions – PayPal: Creating a QR code to link directly to your PayPal account to initiate an instant PayPal Buy Now transaction can reduce commerce friction and increase sales.[xxxiii] <goo.gl/W12LG> (Duration: two minutes)

Challenge Question

Established Payment Process Transaction Strategies: Does it make sense for your organization to accept payments using one or more established payment processes, and if so, which ones will you implement first?

C10. Established E‑Marketplace Transactions

One approach for simplifying commerce transactions is to sell through existing e‑marketplaces such as eBay, Yahoo, Amazon and Apple iTunes. Since millions of people already have accounts set up with these vendors, conducting addition m-commerce transactions can be relatively simple. Therefore companies should consider selling on established e‑marketplaces in addition to other commerce approaches they may be pursuing.

If your target market is China or Asia, this means setting up store operations on sites such as Tmall and auction site Taobao Marketplace that have over a half billion registered users. They are owned by Alibaba which surpassed sales of one trillion RMB in 2012 (about $157 billion US$).

To put that in perspective, that is larger than eBay and Amazon combined, and in 2013 Alibaba transaction volumes could be bigger than all e‑commerce companies in America combined. In fact, Alibaba had sales of $3 billion in a single day, about 25 percent of that coming from mobile shoppers. It ships “an astounding 12 million packages a day.”[xxxiv]

Challenge Questions

Established E-Marketplace Transaction Strategies: Does it make sense for your organization to leverage established e-marketplaces, and if so, which ones will you utilize first?

Challenge Questions

Commerce Transaction Strategies and Priorities: Does it make sense for your organization to implement multiple mobile payment transaction methods, and if so, which ones rank as the highest priority? Which technologies and strategies would you use? How would you implement them? How would you communicate and promote them? What are your sales objectives for each transaction strategy?

Top 10 ‘Next Wave’ Mobile Commerce Strategies

There are a wide range of payment processing innovations occurring in the marketplace today. It is unlikely that there will be one m‑commerce technology winner, since all innovative payment processing systems have both pros and cons. Different technologies will be the right solution for different applications, by different companies in different countries.

It’s good to understand the myriad of options that are available though, and for most companies it makes sense to implement multiple innovative payment processing technologies. Expanding the range of mobile payment options you offer your clients will likely increase your m‑commerce success.

 


[1] For a comprehensive list of these criteria, see Appendix H.


[i] “Groupon – Press Kit Assets.” Groupon, Inc. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.groupon.com/pages/press-kit-media.

[ii] “The Daily Groupon – Coupons, Discounts, and Deals.” Groupon, Inc. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.groupon.com/.

[iii] “LivingSocial Deals – Discounts on Things to Do.” LivingSocial, Inc. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://livingsocial.com/.

[iv] “Deals and Coupons – Offeron.” Offeron. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.offeron.com/.

[v] “Group Buying Deals, One Place – mydealbag: The Daily Deal Aggregator.” Mydealbag. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://mydealbag.com/.

[vi] “WagJag – Daily Deal.” Wagjag Ltd. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.wagjag.com/.

[vii] Julie M Web. “GrouBLOGpon – Groupon now! Deals Available On foursquare.” Groupon. July 29, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.groupon.com/blog/cities/groupon-now-deals-available-in-foursquare/.

[viii] Kim Bashin. “This Bakery Had To Make 102,000 Cupcakes Because Of A Groupon Deal And Lost A Ton Of Money.” Business Insider. November 22, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.businessinsider.com/london-baker-makes-102000-cupcakes-groupon-deal-2011-11.

[ix] “Review: Disney Gift Card App.” MobileMouse.Net. September 3, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://mobilemouse.net/2011/09/review-disney-gift-card-app/.

[x] Rimma Kats. “Subway franchisees ramp up mobile presence via geo-targeted SMS campaign.” Mobile Marketer. July 22, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.mobilemarketer.com/cms/news/messaging/10515.html.

[xi] “Pizza Hut Exec: Mobile to account for 50% of orders.” Unicon Marketing Solutions. October 8, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://unikoninternational.com/uncategorized/pizza-hut-exec-mobile-to-account-for-50-percent-of-future-orders.php.

[xii] Lauren Johnson. “Orbitz revamps iPhone app with focus on streamlined booking, deals.” Mobile Commerce Daily. June 22, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.mobilecommercedaily.com/2012/06/22/orbitz-revamps-iphone-app-with-focus-on-deals.

[xiii] Rimma Kats. “Why are more retailers not leveraging the power of Passbook?” Mobile Commerce Daily. October 15, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.mobilecommercedaily.com/why-are-more-retailers-not-leveraging-the-power-of-passbook.

[xiv] “A smart, virtual wallet for in-store and online shopping.” Google Wallet. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.google.com/wallet/.

[xv] Roger Cheng. “PayPal brings digital wallet to merchants through Discover.” CNET News. August 22, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://news.cnet.com/8301-1035_3-57497979-94/paypal-brings-digital-wallet-to-merchants-through-discover/.

[xvi] Chantal Tode. “Larkburger chain adopts mobile payments to streamline checkout.” Mobile Commerce Daily. July 18, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.mobilecommercedaily.com/2012/07/18/larkburger-chain-adopts-mobile-payments-to-streamline-checkout.

[xvii] “Dwolla.” Dwolla. Accessed November 4, 2012. https://www.dwolla.com/.

[xviii] Chantal Tode. “Macy’s, Foot Locker expand mobile payment efforts via Isis partnership.” Mobile Commerce Daily. May 16, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.mobilecommercedaily.com/2012/05/16/macy%e2%80%99s-foot-locker-partner-with-isis-and-google-wallet-for-mobile-payments.

[xix] Rimma Kats. “Why are more retailers not leveraging the power of Passbook?” Mobile Commerce Daily. October 15, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.mobilecommercedaily.com/why-are-more-retailers-not-leveraging-the-power-of-passbook.

[xx] “New! Starbucks iPhone Apps.” YouTube. Uploaded by Starbucks on September 21, 2009. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/MF9o2 or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4P0Eb9A3mQ.

[xxi] “Domino’s App Android.” YouTube. Uploaded by ViralVideoChart on September 28, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/8UgO5 or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRNMeLsbDpA.

[xxii] Sarah Perez. “26% of Mobile Apps Used Just Once.” ReadWrite Mobile. February 1, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.readwriteweb.com/mobile/2011/02/26-percent-of-mobile-apps-used-just-once.php.

[xxiii] “Amazon.com: Online Shopping for Electronics, Apparel, Computers, Books, DVDs & more.” Amazon.com. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.amazon.com.

[xxiv] “Salesforce.com.” Salesforce.com. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.salesforce.com.

[xxv] “Dell Outlet Twitter Exclusive Offer.” Dell. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.dell.com/content/topics/global.aspx/community/dell_super_savings?c=us&l=en&cs=22.

[xxvi] “NYC to introduce pay by phone app for parking meters.” Simply Zesty. August 18, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.simplyzesty.com/mobile/nyc-to-introduce-pay-by-phone-app-for-parking-meters/.

[xxvii] “PayByPhone Parking – The Only Change You’ll Need.” YouTube. Uploaded by Verruspaybyphone on August15, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/SWM7z or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAZbj9TSknQ&feature=related.

[xxviii] Giselle Tsirulnik. “Fast-food chain Subway launches mobile ordering system.” Mobile Marketer. February 6, 2009. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.mobilemarketer.com/cms/news/commerce/2593.html.

[xxix] James Clark. “Good Idea: Dial a Coke – Singapore.” Nomadic Notes. November 13, 2005. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.nomadicnotes.com/travel-blog/good-idea-dial-a-coke-singapore/.

[xxx] “Buy A Can of Coke – Pay by Cash, Card or Phone.” Coca-Cola Singapore. June 19, 2001. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.coca-cola.com.sg/news/localnews.asp?NeID=25.

[xxxi] Rimma Kats. “Drugstore.com, Beauty.com streamline mobile checkout process.” Mobile Commerce Daily. June 30, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.mobilecommercedaily.com/2011/06/30/drugstore-com-beauty-com-streamline-mobile-checkout-process.

[xxxii] John Koetsier. “How a Chinese e-commerce company racked up $3 billion in sales in just one day.” VB (VentureBeat). November 21, 2012. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://venturebeat.com/2012/11/21/how-a-chinese-e-commerce-company-racked-up-3-billion-in-sales-in-just-one-day/.

[xxxiii] “QR Codes Part 2H – Generate a QR code for PayPal.” YouTube. Uploaded by successmafia on November 26, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/W12LG or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ttWslESLsao.

[xxxiv] John Koetsier. “Alibaba reaches 1 trillion RMB ($157B) in sales to become biggest e-commerce company in the world.” VB (VentureBeat). December 3, 2012. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://venturebeat.com/2012/12/03/alibaba-reaches-1-trillion-rmb-157b-in-sales-to-become-biggest-e-commerce-company-in-the-world/.

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