Top 10 Future Mobile Technologies and Trends


This is an excerpt from my book Destination Innovation: Creative Mobile Marketing and Commerce Strategies… enjoy the videos which can be accessed from the links or simply scan the QR codes with your smartphone. (You will need a QR code reader from your app store.)

Top 10 Future Mobile Technologies and Trends

There is so much happening in the world of mobile technologies and trends that it’s hard to pick just 10. I’d love to hear your feedback in the comments below. Let me know what I should add or delete. Here’s my Top 10 list:

10. Technology Everywhere

9. Mobile-enabled Interactive Billboards

8. Mobile Customer Service Technologies

7. Cashless Society

6. Wearable Computing

5. The Perfect Storm – Mobile, Cloud, Social Media and Analytics

4. The Profound Implications of Mobile Across all Industries

3. Cognitive Computing – The Five Senses

2. Augmented Reality

1. A Sixth Sense

Mobile computing as we know it today has already spawned some amazing new business models, marketing successes and game-changing results. There’s no doubt the future of mobile computing will continue to change the world as we know it. Let’s consider the potential applications and impact of mobile technologies in several fields with my Top 10 List of Future Mobile Technologies. The examples and technologies discussed in this blog already exist today; although it may take several years or decades before they become prevalent in the marketplace. 

I promised you 150 videos in this book, some being more powerful than others. And since I like to under promise and over deliver, this chapter includes several bonus videos you may enjoy (as well as another 50+ videos in endnotes throughout the book).

10. Technology Everywhere 

The pervasiveness and ubiquity of mobile devices will be enhanced in the future through technologies than will surround us. In this world, marketers will go beyond the restrictions of reaching consumers on their mobile devices, but rather, will reach on-the-go consumers in other ways – regardless of whether they have a mobile phone or not.

 

QR technology everywhereWatch the Video: Facial Recognition Advertising: A new age of advertising – instead of you watching advertisements, they will be watching you. Similar to what Tom Cruise experienced in the movie Minority Report, personalized age-appropriate ads can be directed to individual consumers as they pass by through facial recognition.[i] <goo.gl/xPO8> (Duration: three minutes)

Automobile Telematics

QR QNXWatch the Video: Automobile Telematics – QNX: Imbedded mobile devices can go where we go, as we can see in this QNX in-automobile demonstration at the 2013 International Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. Features include trip history tracking, gas mileage calculations, navigation instructions, music and video conferencing.

Use the smartphone virtual key fob app to remotely control your car’s features from anywhere in the world via a cloud connection. Reduce the risk of accidents with a 3D rearview camera.[ii] <goo.gl/gI7KQ> (Duration: seven minutes)

i] “Minority Report Becoming a Reality.” CNN on YouTube. Posted by nadaespermanente on March 13, 2010. Accessed February 2, 2012. http://goo.gl/xPO8 or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_nacxK2U1M.ii] “QNX Automotive Technology the 2013 International Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.” YouTube. Published by Smdgadgetboy on January 13, 2013. Accessed February 1, 2013. http://goo.gl/gI7KQ or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXZvHpvAw4Y.

Wireless Power

The pervasiveness and ubiquity of mobile devices will be enhanced in the future through technologies such as wireless power. Mobile devices no longer need to be plugged in to get charged, they simply need to be near a wireless power source. The ability to transmit power to something as simple as a cardboard box with special printing on it has implications for marketing. This technology is already being used on cereal boxes.

image

Wireless Power for Grocery Store Shelves – Cereal Boxes

Wireless power is transmitted from the grocery store shelf to cereal boxes – lighting them up like miniature television screens. This would certainly catch the eye of a child passing by trying to decide which cereal they want.

imageWatch the Video: Wireless power for cell phones and the ability to transmit power to a cereal box that lights up could have interesting implications for marketing.<goo.gl/VCSBK> (Duration: one minute)

Machine to Machine (M2M)

Machine to Machine (M2M), also known as the Internet of things, refers to machines and applications communicating with each other and taking specific actions to achieve specific pre-defined objectives, all without human intervention. With the proliferation of high speed cellular networks, interesting M2M applications are rapidly being implemented. This includes applications such as healthcare monitoring, fleet management, logistics management, smart grid systems and smart transportation systems.

Imagine these M2M consumer scenarios. Your smartphone alarm clock detects a heavy snowfall overnight or a problem on your morning traffic route – and automatically resets your alarm clock, turns up your furnace and brews your morning coffee – all 30 minutes earlier than normal. You arrive at your destination and park your car – your smartphone or the imbedded telematics device in your car automatically communicates with the parking meter and pays for your parking spot.

You are driving your car home late one night and that same device communicates with the lights ahead to turn a red light into a green light. (Legislation in several countries in Europe and Brazil actual requires vehicle telematics for applications such as anti-theft monitoring.) Your implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) detects an arrhythmia in your heart and automatically delivers a jolt of electricity to save your life. (ICDs already exist today.)[i]

Now imagine these M2M logistics scenarios. Smart vending machines can automatically communicate with a centralized application to indicate which supplies are getting low, in which machine and by how much. The centralized application can then determine the amount and type of supplies required and map out the most efficient delivery route for restocking.

FedEx has thousands of courier package collection boxes that drivers collect on a daily basis, many of which may not have a package requiring pick-up. Now imagine sensors that could determine which boxes actually have a package; the most efficient route for collecting those packages could then be automatically mapped out, taking into account real-time traffic patterns.

Fleet diagnostics and management can also be greatly enhanced with devices that monitor a wide range of things including the speed of the vehicles, the temperature in the truck and the amount of air in the tires – better managing everything from a fleet of rental cars to delivery trucks.

Smart grid systems are being built around the world for many kinds of utilities. In the electric grid, smart meters collect usage data and send it to a central application that can then turn air conditioners on or off to better optimize usage and manage peak electricity requirements.

These M2M systems can help reduce costs, improve customer service levels, speed up commerce transactions, improve asset utilization, help the environment and save lives.


[i] “Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.” Wikipedia. Accessed February 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Implantable_cardioverter-defibrillator.

9. Mobile-enabled Interactive Billboards 

Imagine a future where your body movements or actions on your mobile phone could enable you to interact with store-front displays. Or imagine a billboard on a street corner that you could control and interact with. That future already exists today, and it has spawned a number of creative marketing campaigns that get consumers to engage with brands in unique ways.


imageWatch the Video: Honda’s interactive billboard enables passersby to start the engine of a Honda Civic by simply sending a text message.
[ii] <goo.gl/LIjYV> (Duration: 30 seconds)

imageWatch the Video: The National Centre for Domestic Violence in the UK implemented a unique campaign to raise the spotlight on domestic violence.
[iii] <goo.gl/T61Mf> (Duration: one minute)

imageWatch the Video: Nokia’s interactive display ad places passersby photos right in the ad.
[iv] <goo.gl/FLwpu> (Duration: one minute)

imageWatch the Video: McDonald’s Pick n Play interactive billboard uses gamification and GPS tracking to engage passersby and get them into a nearby McDonald’s.
[v] <goo.gl/ZkOz1> (Duration: two minutes)
imageWatch the Video: LG’s Interactive Billboard in Times Square enabled passersby to share good news or propose to a loved one.[vi] <goo.gl/Vdt6U> (Duration: three minutes)

8. Mobile Customer Service Technologies

Many organizations are experimenting with a wide range of mobile technologies to improve customer service levels, increase self-serve options, improve transaction processing, exploit the power of analytics and leverage the influence of social media. These retail industry video examples should help you imagine the myriad of future possibilities, regardless of what industry you are in.


imageWatch the Video: A good demonstration of what a mobile-enhanced retail clothing store interaction might look like in the future.
[vii] <goo.gl/5k2nv> (Duration: three minutes)

imageWatch the Video: A good demonstration of what a mobile-enhanced grocery store interaction might look like in the future.
[viii] <goo.gl/C8u42> (Duration: two minutes)

7. Cashless Society

The world is quickly moving towards becoming a cashless society.[ix] It is estimated that the proportion of cashless digital transactions is already about 93 percent in Europe and the U.S., and 97 percent in Sweden.[x] In Kenya, the M-Pesa mobile payment system has gone viral and is now used by 83 percent of adults – about 20 million people. M-Pesa has become so popular that about 24 percent of Kenya’s GDP flows through this system. People use it to store money, buy goods, pay bills and transfer funds via SMS. Many Kenyans don’t even have bank accounts.[xi] M-Pesa has transformed payments, banking and people’s lives, helping to bring people out of poverty. It is now expanding to several other countries.[xii]

Entirely new virtual currencies such as Facebook Credits are also being created to replace the function of cash. Facebook Credits have the potential to enable over a billion people to accomplish things such as purchasing games and transferring monetary value between people and with companies. Credits can be purchased with several different currencies and then converted back into real currencies.[xiii]

In Canada, the Royal Canadian Mint has created the MintChip – the next evolution of digital currency. Innovative software developers have created several apps to support this initiative including MintWallet P2P cash transfers and QR code bill payments, Pennies a Day micropayment donations, FlashCash B2C purchase payments, Mini Checkout mobile self-checkouts which eliminate store checkout lines, Pygmy Facebook money transfers and MintChip Watchdog transaction monitoring.[xiv]

The move to a cashless society raises several privacy and security considerations, but there are also several potential benefits as well.

QR CODE 7 CASHLESS SOCIETYWatch the Video: Learn about the future of money and mobile payments.[xv] <goo.gl/8CsUu> (Duration: three minutes)
QR SWEDEN CAWatch the Video: In Sweden, one of the world’s most technologically advanced countries, commerce transactions using real currency now account for only about 3% of transactions and the move to a cashless society could be inevitable.[xvi] <goo.gl/lMFxo> (Duration: two minutes)
QR CASHLESS HAVE U EVER WONDEREDWatch the Video: “Have you ever wondered if one day, cold, hard cash, will simply cease to exist? As more transactions are carried out via credit, online or on your smartphone, paper money and coins have become an inconvenience. David Wolman, author of the The End of Money went one year without using cash, with a few exceptions; he joins the show to discuss.”[xvii] <goo.gl/ok0cH> (Duration: six minutes)

6. Wearable Computing

In the future, wearable computers could replace functional fashion accessories such as eye glasses or wrist watches. Theoretically, these wearable computers could replace these accessories with all of the functionality of a smartphone, and much more. The implications are thought-provoking. For example, researchers are experimenting with wearable eye glasses that can deliver augmented reality experiences and real-time access to information and our social network.

image

The Google Project Glass Wearable Computer

Wearable computers can augment a person’s experience by providing them with knowledge (e.g., directions, weather), entertainment (e.g., music, picture-taking), communications with friends (e.g., video chat) and social networking (two way communications with your social network).[xviii]


imageWatch the Video: Envision the future with wearable computers such as Google’s Project Glass.
[xix] <goo.gl/O2dgN> (Duration: three minutes)

image

A Wearable Computer on your Wrist

Imagine the power of an iPhone on your wrist – an iWatch (not an actual Apple prototype). Theoretically, you could make phone calls, connect with friends, listen to music, conduct commerce transactions, and sync with all your content on other Apple devices via the Apple iCloud..[xx]


imageWatch the Video: This video might help you imagine what a futuristic wearable iPhone might look like – an iWatch.
[xxi] <goo.gl/bL6e6> (Duration: one minute)

Researchers at Washington University have developed contact lenses that can project images of floating text, e-mails or holographic images right before your eyes. The applications of this technology could be profound. Drivers could potentially see directions to their destination to avoid getting lost.

5. The Perfect Storm – Mobile, Cloud, Social and Analytics

A perfect technology storm has arrived – cloud-based services, social media and the power of analytics – and mobile is central to this convergence. We have already discussed the proliferation of mobile social media to great lengths, but combining this with cloud and analytics ups the ante event further.

A new wave of Cloud-Based Services in the form of Software as a Service (SAAS), Infrastructure as a Service (IAAS) and Platform as a Service (PAAS) have arrived. And the content, functionality and connectivity are being delivered to mobile devices. These mobile cloud-based services are reducing or eliminating the need for organizations to buy computer hardware, software and services.

Organizations can obtain speed-to-market, flexibility and cost-reduction benefits from cloud-based solutions, since payments are based on usage or transactions volumes. Entire consumer and business ecosystems are being created that are industry-specific, job-specific, task-specific or environment-specific.

Analytics and Big Data will transform both the employee and customer journey as we move away from simple search capabilities to filtering, discovery and prediction of exactly what the end user needs, when they need it. This will result in extreme in context personalization for everyone, based on their role or the task they are trying to execute, in the place and circumstances they find themselves in.

A simple example would be a warning of a road closure or traffic jam ahead, along with a recommended alternate route – even without someone placing a query about whether the route was clear or not. Easily within the realm of current technological capabilities.

This perfect storm of technologies is heralding a global revitalization – a Firsthand Engagement Model of communications, entertainment, knowledge dissemination and transactions. This is nothing less than the creation of entirely new customer engagement and employee engagement models and platforms. The implications are enormous.

This book has focused on the transformation of the customer journey, but the implications for transforming business processes, IT systems and the employee journey are profound as well. IDC refers to this environment as the 3rd Platform for IT,[i] and suggests that the impact will be felt across every industry.[ii]

This Firsthand Engagement Model of computing will transform marketing, commerce and business processes like nothing before it. Organizations would be well served by creating use cases of how the convergence of these technologies could be applied in their industry to outflank the competition and achieve priority business and customer objectives.


[i] Frank Gens. “Top 10 Predictions – IDC Predictions 2013: Competing on the 3rd Platform” IDC. November, 2012. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://www.idc.com/research/Predictions13/downloadable/238044.pdf.

[ii] “IDC Predictions 2013 – Competing on the 3rd Platform: Opportunities at the Intersection of Mobile, Cloud, Social, and Big Data.” IDC. Accessed November 24, 2012. http://www.idc.com/research/Predictions13/index.jsp#.UOm_-XeZN48.

4. The Profound Implications of Mobile Across all Industries

The creation of this 3rd Platform and mobile technologies promise to have profound implications for every industry on the planet. In this section we will consider how mobile wireless technologies are transforming one industry we can all relate to – healthcare. Imagine devices such as smart bandages and portable EEGs[xxiv] that can monitor vital signs of patients and fetuses, sleep patterns and diseases such as diabetes. In-home patient monitoring can instantly detect the early signs of heart failure, save lives and reduce spiraling healthcare costs. A portable EEG can continuously monitor brain waves over night to track REM and deep sleep patterns, resulting in better sleep disorder treatments.

Patients with diabetes could potentially see “up-to-date medical information like blood sugar levels by linking to biosensors in their body. A Swiss company called Sensimed has already brought to market a smart contact lens that uses built-in computer technology to monitor pressure inside the eye to keep tabs on the eye condition glaucoma.”[xxv] Continuous monitoring of diabetic patients can better track, manage and treat their condition to reduce amputations and deaths.

IBM has created a technology called a Personal Area Network that can actually exchange data between two people that simply touch each other – the data is transmitted across the person’s skin via a harmless one-billionth of an amp signal. Imagine shaking hands with someone to transmit your business card data, or a doctor touching an unconscious patient to receive critical information about the patient’s allergies.[xxvi] Or imagine multiple sensors on a person’s body measuring different conditions or vital signs, and then transmitting those readings across your skin to a device which could then transmit everything wirelessly to your doctor or loved one.

The technologies discussed in this section have already begun to revolutionize consumer-driven, data-driven, home-based healthcare.

QR CODE mobile wireless health careWatch the Video: Mobile wireless healthcare promises to improve the lives of people with a diverse range of chronic diseases and conditions including Alzheimer’s, breast cancer, heart failure, sleep disorders, diabetes, asthma, obesity, hypertension and depression. And our new understanding of the human genome can even predict those at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, breast cancer and sudden cardiac death. By implementing sensors for early detection, preventative medicine can save the lives of at-risk patients.[xxvii] <goo.gl/RXz2> (Duration: 17 minutes)

3. Cognitive Computing – The Five Senses

Cognitive Computing refers to the use of emerging technologies that can mimic and augment human senses. Envision a smartphone with the ability to actually see, taste, touch, hear and smell. The goal would be to use technology to better understand the world around us. The applications of cognitive computing are endless – better information, better analysis, better decisions and a better life. (And imagine devices that can even read your mind – thought-controlled computer games already exist.[xxviii])

IBM is conducting major research in the field of cognitive computing. “The goal of cognitive computing is to get a computer to behave, think and interact the way humans do… But the point isn’t to replicate human brains… this isn’t about replacing human thinking with machine thinking… in the era of cognitive systems, humans and machines will collaborate to produce better results – each bringing their own superior skills to the partnership. The machines will be more rational and analytic. We’ll provide the judgment, empathy, moral compass and creativity.”[xxix]

QR COGNITIVE COMPUTING SIGHTWatch the Video:  Sight – Imagine a technology that could look at images or video and really understand what it was looking at. Applications could include monitoring city streets and alerting emergency personal to an accident or robbery, or looking at your skin to identify cancerous or pre-cancerous growths.[xxx] <goo.gl/j3n7u> (Duration: two minutes)
QR CODE IMAGINE A TECHNOLOGYWatch the Video: Taste – Imagine a technology that could taste food and not only experience the flavor, but determine its precise ingredients. Applications could include understanding a patient’s personal medical conditions such as helping a diabetic avoid sugar.[xxxi] Or imagine a device that could detect peanut residue in a meal to save a highly allergic child. <goo.gl/x1SGw> (Duration: two minutes)
QR IMAGINE BEING ABLE TOWatch the Video: Touch – Imagine being able to replicate the sense of touch through your phone. Applications could include shoppers being “able to feel the texture and weave of a fabric or product by brushing their finger over the item’s image on a device’s screen.[xxxii] <goo.gl/r2ue6> (Duration: one minute)
QR CODE IMAGINE A TECH  TO LISTEN TO SOUNDSWatch the Video: Hearing – Imagine a technology that could be trained to listen to sounds, detect patterns and understand the meaning of those sounds. Applications could include listening to a baby and differentiating between fussing, pain and a cry for hunger to alert a deaf parent. Imagine devices that could listen for earthquake trembles to warn nearby residents and help avert a catastrophe.[xxxiii]  <goo.gl/y9NP0> (Duration: two minutes)
QR CODE IMAGINE TECH BLEND INTO BACKGROUNDWatch the Video: Hearing – Imagine a technology that could simply blend into the background – “always on, always listening, always ready to help.” It could herald the age of ubiquitous computing.[xxxiv] <goo.gl/CuXnD> (Duration: two minutes)
QR CODE IMAGINE A TECH SENSE OF SMELLWatch the Video: Smell – Imagine a technology with a sense of smell. Applications could include determining if your bottle of wine has gone bad before tasting it, or a device that could actually smell a patient to detect a potential health issue or an oncoming flu.[xxxv] <goo.gl/awHdU> (Duration: one minute)
QR SMARTPHONE EMIT SMELLWatch the Video: Smell – Alternatively, imagine a smartphone that could actually emit smells. It’s already here. With a simple text message, someone can send a distant loved one the smell of perfume through the Chat Perf app and device.[xxxvi] And why stop there? Imagine an app that could release the smell of coffee as you’re passing a Starbucks or the smell of pizza as you’re passing a pizzeria. <goo.gl/FfvaO> (Duration: one minute)

2. Augmented Reality

Google Goggles[xxxvii] is a visual search app that lets you search for something simply by taking a picture of it. This could allow you to identify a number of objects in the real world such as a famous landmark (to access the name of the landmark and when it was built), art (to access the artist and title of the work) or a book (to access detailed information about that book and how to purchase it). One obvious use of this app could be for tourism purposes – identifying landmarks or touring a museum or gallery. This app can also scan a business card to automatically call that person or upload the data to your contact database. You can even point it at written text such as a menu in a foreign language to get an automatic translation.[xxxviii]

Advanced augmented reality software can actually recognize objects – this opens up some powerful commerce applications. By pointing your smartphone camera to a product, you can potentially see more detailed product information, customer reviews of that product and even a pricing comparison of that identical product at other online or nearby stores in the neighbourhood. For example, the Flow Powered by Amazon app can recognize objects and instantly provide a price for that object on Amazon.com. That information can also be shared with friends on Facebook and Twitter.[xxxix]

Augmented Reality also has some very interesting applications for merchandising. Bringing 3D virtual images of objects to life in one’s home can be very powerful. This concept is hard to describe, but these sample videos should help you understand the profound implications of these technologies.


imageWatch the Video: Augmented Reality In-Home Merchandising – Tesco has implemented augmented reality to enable customers to shop and view 3D virtual products while at home.
[xl] <goo.gl/JZwy2> (Duration: three minutes)

imageWatch the Video: Augmented Reality In-Home Merchandising – virtually see what is inside your box of cereal.
[xli] <goo.gl/xDnN9> (Duration: one minute)

imageWatch the Video: Augmented virtual reality worlds can bring the store’s retail clothing change room into your home – see how the clothes will look on you (bikinis – sensitivity alert).
[xlii] <goo.gl/TgfJe> (Duration: one minute)

imageWatch the Video: Google Goggles enables searching by simply taking a picture of an object. This is a form of augmented reality.[xliii] <goo.gl/N17T> (Duration: three minutes)
imageWatch the Video: Augmented Reality In-Airport Virtual Reality: Virtual security guards are sent to protect you – think about the interesting marketing campaigns that could be implemented using this technology.[xliv] <goo.gl/HZCvl> (Duration: three minutes)

1. A Sixth Sense 

QR PHYSICAL AND DIGITALWatch the Video: Physical and Digital Worlds Merge: Imagine a future where your mobile device blends into the background and the physical and digital worlds seamlessly merge together – it would be like having a sixth sense.[i] <goo.gl/bcgo> (Duration: eight minutes)

The Journey

Thanks for sharing this journey with me. The future is certainly going to be interesting, and I’m looking forward to being part of the evolution and the revolution. I hope you will join me.

QR FINAL MESSAGE FROM TOMWatch the Video: Tom Vassos – Final Word: Final word from the author, Tom Vassos.[ii] <goo.gl/NSPFh> (Duration: one minute)

Feedback and Next Steps

Feedback about this book is greatly appreciated. Provide a video response to the YouTube video above. A selection of your video responses will be turned into QR codes and featured in a future version of this book. Tell us about how you enjoyed the book or how it helped you build your mobile marketing strategy – get visibility for your company.

QR SURVEY MONKEYLOGO SURVEY MONKEY Destination Innovation Survey: Take the quick four-question survey about this book.[iii] <goo.gl/SGIXY>

QR TO BLOGDestination Innovation Blog: Visit the Destination Innovation blog and join the conversation.[iv] <goo.gl/91CO5>

QR EMAIL SUBSCRIPTIONDestination Innovation E-Mail Subscription: Sign up for the e‑mail list to get mobile marketing updates from the author or learn about future editions of the book for various industries. (The e‑mails will be fairly infrequent so they won’t fill up your inbox.)[v] <eepurl.com/tKAyv>

 FB SHAREFB LIKETWEET Destination Innovation Social Media Support: If you loved this book, please share or like us on Facebook (Destination Innovation) or tweet about it on Twitter (@DestInnovation).

i] “Pattie Maes and Pranav Mistry demo SixthSense.” TED2009. Posted March, 2009. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://goo.gl/bcgo or http://www.ted.com/talks/pattie_maes_demos_the_sixth_sense.html.

[ii] “Final Message from Author, Tom Vassos (DESTINATION INNOVATION).” YouTube. Uploaded on December 14, 2012. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://goo.gl/NSPFh or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dp-9PV838uc.

[iii] “Destination Innovation Book Survey.” Destination Innovation Publishing SurveyMonkey survey. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://goo.gl/SGIXY or http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/PZHQ2G6.

[iv] “Welcome to Tom Vassos‘ Blog – DESTINATION INNOVATION.” Destination Innovation Publishing. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://goo.gl/91CO5 or https://tomvassos.wordpress.com/.

[v] “Destination Innovation Email Subscription Page.” MailChimp. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://eepurl.com/tKAyv or http://destinationinnovation.us6.list-manage2.com/subscribe?u=0cca7524e982472e3439ee70a&id=ac36573edc.


[i] “CES 2011: eCoupled wireless power and light up cereal boxes.” YouTube. Uploaded By DigitalTrends on Jan. 12, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/VCSBK or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BOwgtERQ00A

[ii] “Honda Interactive Billboard using SMS.” YouTube. Uploaded By Thmbstrk on April 12, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/LIjYV or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEhgkhqOpdQ

[iii] “NCDV ‘Drag him Away’: Interactive Billboard Campaign using Grand Visual’s New Mobile Platform.” YouTube. Uploaded by GrandVisual on November 26, 2012. Accessed December 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/T61Mf or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUZfu919H1Q

[iv] “Nokia Interactive Billboard at Lisbon Airport.” YouTube. Uploaded by ydreams on February 11, 2008. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/FLwpu or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UWgIswo3lV4

[v] “McDonald’s Pick n Play.” YouTube. Uploaded by ddbsthlm on May 30, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/ZkOz1 or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7u0ij9D5S4Y

[vi] “LG Interactive Billboard in Times Square.” YouTube. Uploaded by theofficialLGgirl on January 21, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/Vdt6U or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FcdKkIlMcsg

[vii] “The Future of Mobile Marketing.” YouTube. Uploaded By infiniteeadvertising on Nov. 2, 2010. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/5k2nv or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhM9jR-P47E

[viii] “A Glimpse Ahead at Mobile Retail.” YouTube. Uploaded By digiposNA on Oct.6, 2010. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/C8u42 or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nxDjP_aqkzU

[ix] “Is a cashless society inevitable?” CBCNews Your Community Blog. April 15, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.cbc.ca/news/yourcommunity/2012/04/is-it-time-for-a-cashless-society.html

[x] “Sweden: Digital Money is Better Than Cash.” Toonari Post. March 22, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.toonaripost.com/2012/03/world-news/sweden-digital-money-is-better-than-cash/

[xi] “Why M-Pesa Outperforms Other Developing Country Mobile Money Schemes.” iHub Afghanistan. December 24, 2012. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://www.ihub.af/why-m-pesa-outperforms-other-developing-country-mobile-money-schemes/

[xii] “M-Pesa.” Wikipedia. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M-Pesa

[xiii] “Facebook Credits: Get Started.” Facebook. Accessed November 4, 2012. https://www.facebook.com/help/147418788728482

[xiv] “The Royal Canadian Mint Presents the MintChip Challenge.” The Royal Canadian Mint. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://mintchipchallenge.com

[xv] “The Future of Money and Mobile Payments.” YouTube. Published by SapientNitro on June 28, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/8CsUu or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0z46KzHOgmM

[xvi] Linda Nyberg. “Sweden aims to be cashless society.” YouTube. Uploaded by AlJazeeraEnglish on September 8, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/lMFxo or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LoZ3Yk1l_2o

[xvii] “Are We Moving Towards a Cashless Society?” Posted by TheAlyonaShow on March 14, 2012. Accessed November 14, 2012. http://goo.gl/ok0cH or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7tjXAwKZR0

[xviii] “Project Glass.” Google+. Accessed November 4, 2012. https://plus.google.com/+projectglass/posts

[xix] “Project Glass: One day….” YouTube. Published on Apr 4, 2012 by Google. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/O2dgN or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9c6W4CCU9M4&feature=player_embedded

[xx] Not an actual Apple product or prototype. Futuristic design photograph by San Francisco-based Venezuelan designer, Yrving Torrealba. Accessed Nov. 4, 2012. http://www.venestudio.com

[xxi] “The new iPhone 6 iWatch.” Not an actual Apple product or prototype. YouTube. Uploaded by yaelhikri on Oct 27, 2011. Accessed on November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/bL6e6 or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1m5WMyTC8Q

[xxii] Frank Gens. “Top 10 Predictions – IDC Predictions 2013: Competing on the 3rd Platform” IDC. November, 2012. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://www.idc.com/research/Predictions13/downloadable/238044.pdf

[xxiii] “IDC Predictions 2013 – Competing on the 3rd Platform: Opportunities at the Intersection of Mobile, Cloud, Social, and Big Data.” IDC. Accessed November 24, 2012. http://www.idc.com/research/Predictions13/index.jsp#.UOm_-XeZN48

[xxiv] EEG stands for electroencephalogram – a device that can monitor and record the electrical activity of the brain.

[xxv] Michelle Roberts. “BBC News – Bionic contact lens ‘to project emails before eyes’.” BBC. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-15817316

[xxvi] “Personal Area Network (PAN).” IBM Mobile Computing. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.research.ibm.com/topics/popups/smart/mobile/html/pan.html

[xxvii] “Eric Topol: The wireless future of medicine.” TEDMED 2009. Posted February, 2010. Accessed December 15, 2012. http://goo.gl/RXz2 or http://www.ted.com/talks/eric_topol_the_wireless_future_of_medicine.html

[xxviii] “Mind Controlled game controller.” YouTube. Uploaded by cplai on March 16, 2008. Accessed December 17, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PH9N2-mLXzg

[xxix] Bernard Meyerson. “The IBM Next 5 in 5: Our Forecast of Inventions that Will Change the World Within Five Years.” IBM – A Smarter Planet Blog. December 17, 2012. Accessed December 17, 2012. http://asmarterplanet.com/blog/2012/12/the-ibm-5-in-5-our-2012-forecast-of-inventions-that-will-change-the-world-within-five-years.html

[xxx] “Sight: 5 Future Technology Innovations from IBM.” IBM. YouTube. Posted December 16, 2012. Accessed December 23, 2012. http://goo.gl/j3n7u or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YwfJVwknvRo

[xxxi] “Taste: 5 Future Technology Innovations from IBM.” IBM. YouTube. Posted December 16, 2012. Accessed December 23, 2012. http://goo.gl/x1SGw or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DNz23XXLa1E

[xxxii] “Touch: 5 Future Technology Innovations from IBM.” IBM. YouTube. Posted December 16, 2012. Accessed December 23, 2012. http://goo.gl/r2ue6 or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gg3tmZrwbDs

[xxxiii] “Hearing: 5 Future Technology Innovations from IBM.” IBM. YouTube. December 16, 2012. Accessed December 23, 2012. http://goo.gl/y9NP0 or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-oKfWIgDTFs

[xxxiv] “The Ubi – The Always-On Voice-Activated Computer .” YouTube. Published August 13, 2012. Accessed December 24, 2012. http://goo.gl/CuXnD or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j8JFtjGHgiQ

[xxxv] “Smell: 5 Future Technology Innovations from IBM.” IBM. YouTube. Posted December 16, 2012. Accessed December 23, 2012. http://goo.gl/awHdU or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYkSvNKdyBM

[xxxvi] “Japan is developing a smartphone device to send smells!” YouTube. Uploaded by OranDzTiger on November 1, 2012. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/FfvaO or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gofSLNjOhM

[xxxvii] “Google Goggles.” Google. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.google.com/mobile/goggles

[xxxviii] “Google Goggles.” YouTube. Uploaded by Google on December 6, 2009. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hhgfz0zPmH4&feature=player_embedded

[xxxix] “Flow Powered by Amazon – New Augmented Reality App.” The Mobile Web Design Blog. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.themobilewebdesignblog.com/tag/amazon/

[xl] “Kishino Augmented Reality for Tesco.” YouTube – Broadcast Yourself. Uploaded by KishinoAR on Nov 15, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5QDRoxuHtk or http://goo.gl/JZwy2

[xli] “Mobile Augmented Reality – Cereal box.” YouTube. Uploaded By mateioAR on Oct. 20, 2009. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b1naY762FHc&feature=results_video or http://goo.gl/xDnN9

[xlii] “Online Fitting Room Shopping Augmented Reality.” YouTube. Uploaded By ImagineThatTech on April 29, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/TgfJe or

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QHAyOtLuqtY

[xliii] “Google Goggles.” YouTube. Uploaded by Google on Dec 6, 2009. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://goo.gl/N17T or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hhgfz0zPmH4

[xliv] “Virtual security guards are spotted at Munich Airport (Live Augmented Reality for Fujitsu). ”YouTube. Uploaded by FujitsuTS on Nov. 15, 2011. Accessed November 4, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=daYTW-vzr5I or http://goo.gl/HZCvl

[xlv] “Pattie Maes and Pranav Mistry demo SixthSense.” TED2009. Posted March, 2009. http://goo.gl/bcgo or http://www.ted.com/talks/pattie_maes_demos_the_sixth_sense.html

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